Welcome to Drugs Wiki - Drugs Prescription Information
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What is a Prescription Drugs?
The medicine released under the recipe (also treatment of the instruction or instruction medicine) is medicine
having the licence which is adjusted by the legislation. To demand the medical instruction before it can be received.
The term is used to distinguish it from medical products which can be received without the instruction.
At various jurisdiction is various that definition that makes a medicine released under the recipe. "Rx" it is often used
as the short form for a medicine released under the recipe in the North America. It is reduction for Latin "recipe",
the obligatory form "recipere", value "takes". Medicines released under the recipe are often distributed together with
the monography (In Europe, the Patient information Leaflet or PIL) which gives the detailed information
on a preparation.
Regulation Drugs in United States
In the United States, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines what requires a prescription. In general,
prescription drugs are authorized by veterinarians, dentists, optometrists, medical practitioners, and advanced
practice nurses. In general, it is required that an MD, DO, PA, OD, DPM, NMD, ND, DVM, DDS, or DMD,
some psychologists (see medical psychology), clinical pharmacists, nurse practitioners, and other APRNs write the
prescription; basic-level registered nurses, medical assistants, emergency medical technicians, most psychologists,
and social workers as examples, do not have the authority to prescribe drugs.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States in 1970.
The CSA is the federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use and
distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The legislation created five Schedules (classifications), with varying qualifications for a substance to be included in
each. The safety and effectiveness of prescription drugs in the US is regulated by the federal Prescription Drug
Marketing Act of 1987. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is charged with implementing this law.
The package insert for a prescription drug contains information about the intended effect of the drugs and how it
works in the body. It also contains information about side-effects, how a patient should take the drug, and cautions
for its use, including warnings about allergies.
As a general rule, over-the-counter drugs (OTC) are used to treat conditions not necessarily requiring care from a
healthcare professional and have been proven to meet higher safety standards for self-medication by patients.
Often a lower strength of a drug will be approved for OTC use, whereas higher strengths require a prescription
to be obtained; a notable case is ibuprofen, which has been widely available as an OTC pain killer since
the mid-1980s but is still available by prescription in doses up to four times the OTC dose for use in cases of
severe pain not adequately controlled by the lower, OTC strength.
Herbal preparations, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other food supplements are regulated by the FDA as
dietary supplements. Because specific health claims cannot be made, the consumer must make informed
decisions when purchasing such products.
In the United States, the term "prescription drug" is most commonly used, but they are also called Rx-only drugs or
legend drugs, after the Federal and State laws that mandate that all such drugs bear a "legend" prohibiting sale
without a prescription; though more complex legends have been used, on most original drug packaging today the
legend simply states "Rx only".
Also, pharmacies operated by membership clubs, such as Costco and Sam's Club, by law must allow
non-members to use their pharmacy services and must charge the same prices as to members.
Physicians may legally prescribe drugs for uses other than those specified in the FDA approval; this is known as
off-label use. Drug companies may not promote or market drugs for off-label uses.
Large U.S. retailers that operate pharmacies and pharmacy chains use inexpensive generic drugs as a way to attract
customers into stores.
Several chains, including Walmart, Kroger (including subsidiaries such as Dillons), Target, and others, offer $4
onthly prescriptions on select generic drugs as a customer draw.
Publix Supermarkets, which has pharmacies in many of their stores, offers free prescriptions on a few older but
still effective medications to their customers. The maximum supply is for 30 days.
Regulation Drugs in United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom the Medicines Act 1968 governs the manufacture and supply of three categories of medicine.
Prescription-only medicines (POM), which can be sold by a pharmacist if prescribed by a prescriber Pharmacy
medicines (P), which may be sold by a pharmacist without prescription General sales list (GSL) medicines that
may be sold without a prescription in any shop.
Possession of prescription-only medicines without a prescription is not a criminal offence unless it falls under
the Misuse of Drugs Act. A patient visits a medical practitioner authorised to prescribe drugs and certain other
medical items, such as blood glucose-testing equipment for diabetics.
Also, suitably qualified and experienced nurses and pharmacists may be independent prescribers.
Both can prescribe all POMs but pharmacists are not allowed to prescribe schedule 1 controlled drugs.
District nurses and health visitors have had limited prescribing rights since the mid-nineties, before which
prescriptions for dressings and simple medicines would have had to have been signed by a doctor.
Most prescriptions in the UK are NHS prescriptions, which can be taken to a pharmacy to be dispensed.
The NHS prescription fee is £8.05 per item in England (as of 1 April 2014), however prescription charges have
been completely abolished in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Prescription charges are paid entirely to the NHS through the pharmacy, while the pharmacy claims back from
the NHS the cost of the medicine dispensed. Most of the prescriptions dispensed on the NHS are exempt from
The per-item fee applies regardless of the quantity of each item prescribed by the doctor, and regardless of the
underlying cost of the medicine to the NHS. This means that the financial impact on the patient of this system of fees
can vary enormously - the actual cost of the medicine given out may vary from a few pence to hundreds of pounds.
However, medical practitioners can prescribe a maximum three months supply of the medicine for it to be covered
under the NHS. If a medical practitioner wishes to prescribe a supply in excess of three months, the prescriber
must write a separate private prescription for the balance of the medicine supply in excess of three months, for which
the patient must pay the actual price as charged by the pharmacist.
Private prescriptions are also issued by medical practitioners seen privately or sometimes for medicines not covered
on the NHS. For these, the patient will pay the pharmacy directly for the cost of the medicine and the pharmacy's
dispensing fee. In 2007, a survey conducted by Ipsos Mori found that 800,000 people failed to collect a prescription
during 2007 due to the cost.
Regulation Drugs in Australia
In Australia the Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons, abbreviated SUSMP, governs the
manufacture and supply of drugs:
The categories defined by the SUSMP are:
Schedule 1 - Defunct
Schedule 2 - Pharmacy Medicine
Schedule 3 - Pharmacist-Only Medicine
Schedule 4 - Prescription-Only Medicine/Prescription Animal Remedy
Schedule 5 - Caution
Schedule 6 - Poison
Schedule 7 - Dangerous Poison
Schedule 8 - Controlled Drug (Possession without authority illegal)
Schedule 9 - Prohibited Substance Unscheduled Substances
Similar to the UK, the patient visits a health practitioner, such as a doctor, nurse, dentist, podiatrist, etc, who is able to
prescribe the drug.
Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme
Many prescriptions issued by health practitioners in Australia are covered by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, a
scheme that provides subsidised prescription drugs to residents of Australia to ensure that all Australians have
affordable and reliable access to a wide range of necessary medicines. When purchasing a drug under the PBS the
maximum price a consumer pays is the patient co-payment contribution, which, as of January 1, 2014, is A$36.90
for general patients. Those covered by government entitlements
(low-income earners, welfare recipients, Health Care Card holders, etc.) and those covered under the
Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) have a reduced co-payment, which is $6.00 in 2014.
The table below indicates the changes in co-payments over the years.
These co-payments are compulsory and cannot be discounted by pharmacies under any circumstances.
Private prescriptions that are for medicines not covered on the PBS or for medicines being used for indications
other than that are covered by the PBS are also issued. For these prescriptions, the patient will pay the pharmacy
directly for the cost of the medicine and the pharmacy's dispensing fee.
Expiration Date Drugs
The working life demanded in several countries, defines date to which the manufacturer guarantees a full potentiality
And safety of a preparation. The majority of drugs is powerful and safe during some time after working life.
Research is spent the USA. Management on control over products and medicines has covered 100 drugs, the
instruction and off-exchange. Results have shown it approximately 85 % Them about 15 past years their working
life were safe and effective. Dzhoel Devis, the former head of the consent of working life FDA, Told it with a handful
of exceptions - known, being nitroglycerine, insulin, (generation of syndrome Fanconi) and some Liquid
antibiotics - most drugs with the expired term, possibly, are effective.
The American Medical association (АМА) has let out the report and the statement for Pharmaceutical Working lives.
The family medical Guide of Medical school of Harward notices that, with rare exceptions,
"it is true, efficiency of a preparation can decrease Time, but the most part of an original potentiality still remains even
after a decade after working life ".
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