What is Drug ?
Drugs - medical product, in widest of terms, chemical substance which has known biological effects on
people or other animals. Products in general are excluded from this definition, despite their physiological
effects by sight animals. In pharmacology a medical product the chemical substance used in treatment,
preventive maintenance, or the diagnosis of illness or used differently to increase physical or intellectual
well-being. Preparations can be used for the limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic diseases.
Recreational drugs are chemical substances that affect the central nervous system, such as opioids or
hallucinogens. They may be used for effects on perception, consciousness, personality, and behavior.
Many recreational drugs are also used in medicine.
Some drugs can cause addiction and habituation and all drugs have side effects.
Many drugs are illegal for recreational purposes and international treaties such as the Single Convention
on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of legally prohibiting certain substances.
In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving later into
"droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants preserved in them.
The transitive verb "to drug"
(meaning intentionally administer a substance to someone, often without their knowledge)
arose later and invokes the psychoactive rather than medicinal properties of a substance.
A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure and/or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or
medical condition, or may be used as preventive medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any
existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms.
Dispensing of medication is often regulated by governments into three categorie over the counter (OTC)
medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions,
behind-the-counter (BTC), which are
dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's prescription, and prescription only medicines
(POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical professional, usually a physician.
In the United Kingdom, BTC medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in
registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. These medications are designated
by the letter P on the label.
The range of medicines available without a prescription varies from country to country.
Medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented to give the
developer exclusive rights to produce them. Those that are not patented (or with expired patents) are
called generic drugs since they can be
produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder.
Spiritual and Religious Use Drugs
The spiritual and religious use of drugs has been occurring since the dawn of our species.
Drugs that are considered to have spiritual or religious use are called entheogens.
Some religions are based completely on the use of certain drugs.
Entheogens are mostly hallucinogens, being either psychedelics or deliriants, but some are also
stimulants and sedatives.
Nootropics, also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed to improve human
cognitive abilities. Nootropics are used to improve memory, concentration, thought, mood, learning, and
many other things.
Some nootropics are now beginning to be used to treat certain diseases such as attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease.
They are also commonly used to regain brain function lost during aging. Similarly, drugs such as
steroids improve human physical capabilities and are sometimes used (legally or not) for this purpose,
often by professional athletes.
Recreational Drug Use
Recreational drugs use is the use of psychoactive substances to have fun, for the experience, or to
enhance an already positive experience. National laws prohibit the use of many different recreational
drugs and medicinal drugs that have the potential for recreational use are heavily regulated.
Many other recreational drugs on the other hand are legal, widely culturally accepted, and at the most
have an age restriction on using and/or purchasing them.
These include alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and caffeine products in the west, and in other localised areas
of the world drugs such as Khat are common. Because of the legal status of many drugs, recreational
drug use is controversial, with many governments not recognising spiritual or other perceived uses for
drugs and classing them under illegal recreational use.
Drugs, both medicinal and recreational, can be administered in a number of ways.
Many drugs can be administered in a variety of ways rather than just one.
Bolus is the administration of a medication, drug or other compound that is given to raise its
concentration in blood to an effective level. The administration can be given intravenously, by
intramuscular, intrathecal or subcutaneous injection.
Inhaled, breathed into the lungs, as an aerosol or dry powder.
This includes smoking a substance. Injected as a solution, suspension or emulsion either:
intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous. Insufflation, or snorted into the nose.
Orally, as a liquid or solid, that is absorbed through the intestines.Rectally as a suppository, that is
absorbed by the rectum or colon.
Sublingually, diffusing into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
Topically, usually as a cream or ointment.
A drug administered in this manner may be given to act locally or systemically.
Vaginally as a suppository, primarily to treat vaginal infections.
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